Wave propagation calculation tool (for free-space and 2 wave model)
By inputting parameters for frequency, transmit power and distance, it is possible to calculate the wave propagation characteristics for free-space and 2-wave model.
Basic input parameters
❶ Input the radio frequency in MHz
❷ Input the radio transmission power in dBm
Transmission power dBm -->
❸ Input the propagation distance in meters
Advanced input parameters
❹ Antenna height
At transmitter m
At receiver m
❺ Antenna gain
At transmitter dBi
At receiver dBi
Log / linear
Explanation of the free-space and 2-wave model
Propagation in a perfect vacuum without wave reflection. Theoretically, the received power drops off with the square of the distance.
Propagation over an infinitely flat reflective surface. Interference will occur at the receiver when the two waves converge, one having taken a direct route and the other that has been reflected. If they both converge with opposite phase, the overall received power will be less (dead point). The dead points occur more frequently at closer distance to the transmitter. To avoid such areas the receiver will need to be relocated to places where the received power level is at maximum. Using higher frequencies (with shorter wavelengths), the number of dead points will occur more rapidly especially near the transmitter.
In reality, reflections can occur from buildings and mountains creating multipath propagation (delayed wave arrival) so the situation becomes more complex.